Reasonable weather in Melbourne, but not much different from normal English overcast day.
These studies have focused on the relationship between one's confidence in the accuracy of the answer to a cognitive test item and measures of intelligence, educational achievement and decision-making. They also include a range of measures of thinking styles, self-beliefs and personality.
Lazar Stankov (65)
The Stankov paper is an overview of recent findings showing that non-cognitive
measures can be ordered with respect to their predictive validity. Many e.g., measures
of motivation, depression, and most personality traits - are poor predictors of
intelligence and achievement. Measures of self-beliefs - self-efficacy, self-concept and
anxiety - have moderate correlations with cognitive performance but tend to be domain specific. The best predictors of any kind of cognitive performance are measures of confidence that can capture a major part of predictive validity of the self-beliefs.
Intelligence and confidence in relationship to competence, arrogance
and close-mindedness. Sabina Kleitman (66)
Intelligence and confidence as respective predictors of quality and
The Kleitman paper explores the latent structure of intelligence and confidence,
along with a broad range of self-report measures of need for structure, outward
assuredness, rigid thinking, openness to experience and metacognitive beliefs. The
findings highlight the distinctions and relationships between intelligence, arrogance, and rigid thinking.
erroneous decision-making. Simon A Jackson* & Sabina Kleitman (67)
The Jackson paper examines the generality of metacognitive and decision-making
measures derived from a variety of intelligence tests, as well as the predictive validity of intelligence and metacognitive constructs to the quality and types of decisions made.The particular decision making task is tailored along the lines of a test taking scenario.
self-concept and anxiety? Lazar Stankov, Jihyun Lee et al.
The J. Lee paper report the results from a study that assessed confidence together
with scales measuring self-belief (i.e., self-efficacy, different kinds of self-concepts, and anxiety) among the 15-year old students from Singapore. A distinct confidence factor was identified in the domains of mathematics and English. The results show that confidence is: a) a robust individual differences dimension and it captures much of the predictive variance of other self-beliefs that are, in turn, among the best known
predictors of achievement.
Individual differences in anchoring: Traits and experience Matthew B
Welsh et al. (69)
The Welsh paper is focused on anchoring a well-known effect leading to bias in
estimation in various decision-making contexts. Anchoring was examined in a
simulated poker-like card game. While there were few significant demographic and
cognitive predictors of the overall performance, cognitive ability measures and decision styles were related to decreases in anchoring susceptibility over the period od practice in playing the card game.